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Title: Geographic variation of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units from Triatoma infestans at different spatial scales
Authors: Fernández, María Del Pilar 
Cecere, María Carla 
Lanati, Leonardo Alejandro 
Lauricella, Marta Alicia 
Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel 
Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban 
Cardinal, Marta Victoria 
Keywords: Trypanosoma cruzi;Unidades de escritura discretas;Diversidad;Epidemiología Molecular;Triatoma infestans
Issue Date: Dec-2014
Journal: Acta tropica 
We assessed the diversity and distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) in Triatoma infestans populations and its association with local vector-borne transmission levels at various geographic scales. At a local scale, we found high predominance (92.4%) of TcVI over TcV in 68 microscope-positive T. infestans collected in rural communities in Santiago del Estero province in northern Argentina. TcV was more often found in communities with higher house infestation prevalence compatible with active vector-borne transmission. Humans and dogs were the main bloodmeal sources of the TcV- and TcVI-infected bugs. At a broader scale, the greatest variation in DTU diversity was found within the Argentine Chaco (227 microscope-positive bugs), mainly related to differences in equitability between TcVI and TcV among study areas. At a country-wide level, a meta-analysis of published data revealed clear geographic variations in the distribution of DTUs across countries. A correspondence analysis showed that DTU distributions in domestic T. infestans were more similar within Argentina (dominated by TcVI) and within Bolivia (where TcI and TcV had similar relative frequencies), whereas large heterogeneity was found within Chile. DTU diversity was lower in the western Argentine Chaco region and Paraguay (D=0.14-0.22) than in the eastern Argentine Chaco, Bolivia and Chile (D=0.20-0.68). Simultaneous DTU identifications of T. cruzi-infected hosts and triatomines across areas differing in epidemiological status are needed to shed new light on the structure and dynamics of parasite transmission cycles.
DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.07.014
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