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Title: The second coming of urban yellow fever in the Americas: looking the past to see the future
Authors: Salomón, Oscar Daniel 
Arias, Antonieta Rojas DE 
Keywords: Aedes;Fiebre Amarilla;Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla;Américas
Issue Date: 2022
Journal: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 
Series/Report no.: Anais da Acad Bras Cienc .;2022 Jun 17;94(2):e20201252
Yellow fever (YF) epizootics in South America during the 21st century have an unprecedented recorded magnitude and geographical dispersion. The YF spread progressively involved areas considered previously free of risk reaching the edge of cities with large unvaccinated populations, and urban outbreaks were frequently forecasted. We critically reviewed the initial stages and enhancing contexts of YF urban epidemics since the 17th century in the Americas, and the modeling attempts of YF epidemic risk by of Aedes-Human transmission, to find common factors that increase the probability of these events in the current scenarios. The YF urban outbreaks of the past showed as necessary conditions the multiple introduction by viremic carriers clustered in time and space, coincident with population peaks of Aedes. These conditions are not met in the current outbreaks in the Americas by sylvatic YF cycles, besides the protective impact of vector control campaigns, vaccination coverage, improved surveillance, and case management. Therefore, urban Aedes-Human YF outbreaks in the Americas are still possible but with low probability or very focal transmission, while the conditions reported in the past were avoided, and the surveillance and control measures sustained, including the vaccination of the population at risk.
Fil. Salomón, Oscar Daniel. ANLIS Dr.C.G.Malbrán. Instituto Nacional de Medicina Tropical; Argentina. Comité Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Fil: Rojas De Arias, Antonieta. Centro para el Desarrollo de la Investigación Científica (CEDIC), Asunción, Paraguay.
DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765202220201252
Rights: Open access
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Appears in Collections:Publicaciones INMeT

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